England is a part of Europe's United Kingdom and it is located on the island of Great Britain. It is not considered a separate nation, but it is an independent country within the UK. It is bordered by Scotland to the north and Wales to the west - both of which are also regions within the UK.
England's climate is moderated by its maritime location and the presence of the Gulf Stream. The average January low temperature is 1°C and the average summer high temperature is 30°C.
England is separated from France and continental Europe by a 21 mile (34 km) gap. However near Folkestone they are physically connected to each other by the Channel Tunnel and it is the longest undersea tunnel in the world.
England can be divided into The Highland and Lowland Zone. Highland zone is categorized by rocky, rugged hills and eroded mountain faces, interrupted by valleys and extensive plains. These areas have less sun light and high rainfall and colder as compared to lowland zone. Devon and Cornwall are situated on a peninsula that is part of the Highland Zone. Lowland zone experiences less rain and more sunshine than the high-lying regions. Thus much inhabitants can be found preferring this zone.
The Roman Baths give visitors the ability to still see how public bathing was done in the 19th century. Guests can check out the Sacred Spring, the Roman Temple, the Roman Bath House, and the other buildings on its street level however, the bath themselves are located below the modern street level.
Aside from being the centre of public research in the United Kingdom, it is also the second oldest university in the English-Speaking world. Visitors will be able to appreciate the cultural and practical associations that the university portrays. Today, the University of Cambridge is a collegiate university and has a student population of 18,000 with 31 colleges occupying the various locations. The university offers students art centres, sports clubs and other school related amenities.
The UK is striving to be a leader in the sustainable growth sector and has proven this goal when they opened the Eden Project. This area is home to numerous social and environmental projects. Visitors of the Eden Project will be able to see creative and stunning gardens as well as different artworks.
The Eden Project
It is also a place for music events and is the home of valuable plant and conservation research. This is definitely more than just a theme park. It is a place where people can learn with the help of interactive displays and detailed information provided in the 10 hectares of rockeries and gardens.
This castle has been occupied since the 1840's by the University College, Durham. Today, this place is open to the general public, but only with the help of guided tours since it is still being used as a working building by over a hundred students. This lovely castle sits on top of a hill in the River Wear on Durham’s Peninsula and is opposite the Durham Cathedral.
This castle was first built in the 11th century as a way to project King Norman’s power and prestige in the north of England. It is an example of what early bailey and motte castles look like.
This is considered to be one of the best cathedrals in York, England and is also the largest in Northern Europe. Guests can enjoy the Gothic nave and chapter house. Visitors also love the medieval stained glass and the Five Sisters Window that is over 16 meters (52 ft.) tall. It was constructed as a clear Christian presence during the 14th century. The place also has an attached school and library that was created during the 18th century.
The nave is extra wide and tall, and is roofed in wood made to look like stone. At the west end is the Great West Window, constructed in 1338, which featuring delicate stone tracery that forms a heart in the top centre. There are several other fine windows along the nave walls, dating from the early 14th century.
The 13th-century chapter house is considered an excellent example of the Decorated style. It contains no central pillar, and beneath great stained glass windows are more than 200 carved heads and figures.
English kings on the right side of the pulpitum of choir screen
The Five Sisters Window in York Minster’s North Transept is the only memorial in the country to women of the British Empire who lost their lives during the First World War. The window is filled with grey glasses, hand-painted and set into complex geometric designs. The central panel features one more colourful section, taken from the Norman Minster and inspired by the Crusades.
The Great West Window shows the authority and purpose of the Church through a hierarchy going up the window. The base level features eight Archbishops of York, above who are the supporters from who the Archbishops derive their power, followed by panels showing the life of Christ and the Virgin the Annunciation, Nativity, Renaissance and Ascension.
This place has played a significant role in the history of navigation and astronomy. It is located on the hill in Greenwich Park, and is overlooking the River Thames. The Royal Observatory has been commissioned by King Charles II for the special purpose of “rectifying the motions of the heavens and the places of the fixed stars and in order to find the desired longitude of places in order to master the art of navigation.”
Royal Observatory Greenwich
The place is currently being maintained in the UK as a tourist attraction. The two clocks in the area were built by Thomas Tompion and were installed in the principal room of the building.
It is often referred as The Lakes and is located in a mountainous region in the North West England. It is famous due to its amazing lakes, forests and mountains. Visitors will be delighted to know that the place is associated with 19th century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets.
The place also has the deepest and longest lakes in England like the Windermere and the Wastwater. The UK is trying to enter it into World Heritage Status in the cultural landscape category.
The south-eastern part of the Lake District National Park is the best known and most visited area. Spectacular Lake Windermere is the largest lake in England, measuring ten and a half miles long and a mile and a quarter across at its widest point, with a depth of up to 220 feet. The lake is so large that it has a slight but discernible tide. Windermere is a centre for all forms of water sports including sailing, water skiing and fishing and is the headquarters of the Royal Windermere Yacht Club. Rowing and motor boats can be hired and steamers also operate regular passenger tours of the Lake.
Windermere lake in England, Lake District National Park
Wastwater is England's deepest lake and lies at the foot of England's highest mountain, Scafell Pike. Voted 'Britain's Favourite View' it is simply is stunning. Wast Water's waters are extremely clear, due to the fact that it is poor in nutrients which implies it holds little life.
The Westminster Abbey is a large, Gothic Church located in the City of Westminster, London. It is where coronations occur and is also the burial site for the English and later the British monarchs of the Commonwealth realms. According to historical accounts by Sulcard in the 1080, the Abbey was first established in the time of Mellitus, Bishop of London. Up to the present time, the Fishmonger’s company still gives a salmon a year in the area since this was a community act during the early 1970s.
The official name for Westminster Abbey is the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster. However, the abbey doesn’t operate like a regular church reporting to the hierarchy within the Church of England. Around 1560, the abbey was designated with a special “Royal Peculiar” – which is a church responsible directly to the Sovereign.
Seventeen royal weddings have taken place at Westminster Abbey with the most recent on 29 April 2011. This was the royal wedding of Prince William of Wales now Duke of Cambridge, who is the eldest son of Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales. He married Miss Catherine Middleton now Duchess of Cambridge.
Royal Wedding Westminster Abbey
This place has been created for the purpose of keeping the memory of human history and culture. It contains permanent collections that number to a total of eight million works. It is considered to hold some of the most comprehensive collections from various continents. It started in 1753 and contained most of the collections of physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. The museum opened its doors to visitors on the 15th of January, 1759.
The British Museum
Many highlights reflect British archaeologists’ adventures in Greece, Egypt and the Middle East – if you love ancient Egypt, you’ll be in heaven.
But there are also fascinating exhibits from British digs, from the Romans onwards, including the Sutton Hoo treasure from the Anglo-Saxon period.
And while you can see Egyptian artefacts in other museums, you’ll not see anything like the Sutton Hoo treasure outside Britain.
Parthenon sculptures, Egyptian mummies, Elgin Marbles and the Rosetta Stone - among so many other things are worth watch.
Warwick Castle was originally built by William the Conqueror in 1068. It was rebuilt in stone in the 12th century but was originally made of wooden motte-and bailey. It is considered one of the best symbols of 14th century military architecture and was also used as a stronghold in the 17th century. In its previous look it consisted of a mound, which was usually used as a keep or a tower and a bailey with an enclosed courtyard.
The name Warwick means 'dwellings by the weir' - a weir was a fence or wattle built across a stream to catch or retain fish. The Warwick wooden Motte and Bailey Castle was defended by the River Avon on the South side and other sides are wide and deep river. An important feature of Warwick Castle is its access to the River Avon. During the construction of Warwick Castle men, equipment and building materials were easily transported by boats to the site of the castle. Once Warwick Castle had been built fresh supplies, provisions and reinforcements prevented the castle occupants from being starved into submission during siege warfare.
Warwick acquired the classic moat surrounding a large earth mound supporting a fort with the arrival of the Norman's. Warwick was one of a whole chain of castles across England that included Windsor Castle. If you are looking for a medieval castle where you kids can fulfil their fantasies, this is probably the place for you.
Discover the many treasures beyond Warwick Castle's imposing walls, venturing into the marvellously, recreated castle interiors. An outstanding guided tour gives an all-encompassing and captivating journey through the best features of the castle, including the magnificent Great Hall, complete with the authentic suits of armour and incredible period paintings.
Moving through the rest of the castle you can really take in the astonishing restoration work of the adjoining dinning and drawing rooms, as well as the serene castle Chapel and the lavish Royal Bedroom.
Only for the very brave, Warwick's Castle Dungeon is truly eerie, nerve jangling experience of the brutal and bloody history of the castle.
The macabre exploration through the dungeon is terrifying! Meet the grim residents set on scaring every bold visitor such as the blood-thirsty torturer, the deranged cook and the vengeful Witches of Warwick. Due to the popularity of the dungeon, a specific time slot is provided to visit the castle dungeon.
A visit to the castle also takes you through the beauty of the landscaped Capability Brown gardens, down into the medieval vaults and into the private residence where you can discover the reality about the lives of the occupants.
The name “Lizard” according to some researchers is a corruption of the Cornish name “ Lyds Ardh”, which means high court. The name Lizard Peninsula must have come from a Celtic name and was formed during the Iron Age and Roman Period. It was often called as the “Graveyard of Ships” in the past due to the fact that this place is dangerous to shipping. Historical information claims that the area was previously inhabited with the discovery of burial mounds and stones.
Also known as Her Majesty’s Royal Palace and Fortress, it is a historical castle located on the North bank of the River Thames in central London. It was founded at the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. It served as a royal residence and contains a complex of several buildings within the two concentric rings of defensive walls. Throughout history it has been besieged several times and has been used as a treasury, menagerie and at the same time an armoury.
The Tower of London – an imposing fortress with many layers of history, which has become one of the symbols of royalty – was built around the White Tower.
This place is considered to be the most popular Christian Structure in England. It is the cathedral of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the main leader of the Church of England and considered the symbolic leader of the Anglican Communion.
It was then renovated to have a Gothic style in 1174 in order to be able to house pilgrims who are visiting the shrine of Thomas Becket. Thomas Becket was the archbishop who was murdered in the cathedral in the 1170.
The floor of the Trinity Chapel, near the west end, has a set of interesting decorated marble roundels representing the signs of the zodiac, months of the year, virtues and vices.
At the eastern end of the cathedral is a massive stained glass window that shows stories from the Bible. Beneath it is the patriarchal chair (cathedral), made of Purbeck marble, on which since the 12th Century all archbishops have been enthroned. It was originally thought that this chair was the one used by St. Augustine as his cathedral, but it is now accepted that the chair came about during the time when the choir was reconstructed. It was in the vicinity of the cathedral that the scalp of Thomas Becket was displayed.
The ceiling, where men would have worked on their backs on top of less than stable scaffolding, is both highly decorative yet functional.
The name Jurassic Coast comes from the best known of the geological periods found within it, but in fact the Site includes rocks from the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. It covers 95 miles of truly stunning coastline from East Devon to Dorset, with rocks recording 185 million years of the Earth's history.
The Coast itself has been carved over thousands of years by ice ages and changes in sea level. The result is a truly spectacular landscape containing a story spanning millions of years of the Earth's history. The Jurassic Coast is the perfect place to enjoy a number of activities including walking, cycling and water sports.
Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site
If you’re looking for beautiful beaches, crystal clear seas and peaceful seaside houses then Cornwall is the place for you. Cornwall is defined by its magnificent coastline with 300 miles of dunes and cliffs, medieval harbours and oak-forested creeks – and every mile accessible on foot.
Cornwall is also known for its artistic heritage. You can enjoy beach and enjoy the surfing paradise.
Lands End in Cornwall
Located at the westernmost point of mainland Britain, Land’s End is the legendary Cornish destination that has inspired people since ancient Greek times when it was referred to as ‘Belerion’ place of the sun.
Lands End in Cornwall
Part of an UNESCO World Heritage Site, Stonehenge is one of Britain's most famous sightseeing spots. Believed to date from as far back as 3000BC, historians are still baffled by how the huge slabs of Stonehenge were transported. Weighing up to 50 tons each, it would’ve taken 600 men to move just one.
Stonehenge was a structure with multiple purposes. It was an astronomical observation device used to predict, in advance of their occurrence, particular periods in the annual cycle when the earth energies were most highly influenced by the sun, moon and stars. It was a temple in which festivals were held at those energetic periods determined by astronomical observations. It was a structure built with certain types of stones, positioned according to sacred geometry, which functioned as a sort of battery for gathering, concentrating and emanating the earth energies of the site.
The Houses of Parliament and Elizabeth Tower, commonly called Big Ben, are among London's most iconic landmarks and must-see London attractions. Technically, Big Ben is the name given to the massive bell inside the clock tower, which weighs more than 13 tons (13,760 kg). The clock tower looks spectacular at night when the four clock faces are illuminated.
The hour bell of the Great Clock of Westminster - known worldwide as 'Big Ben' is the most famous bell ever cast at White chapel one of the world's most famous tourist attractions. At one time, it was the largest four-faced clock in the world, an honour now claimed by the Allen-Bradley Clock Tower in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Clock Tower also houses bells that chime every quarter hour, with the largest bell called the "Great Bell" chiming every hour on the hour. Big Ben is actually the nickname of only the Great Bell.
For only the third time in 157 years, the bell at London's landmark clock will not toll the hours. Big Ben resides in Elizabeth Tower at the Houses of Parliament. Starting next year 2017, the bell will go silent for a few months as part of a three-year repair plan. The clock mechanism is said to be in need of repairs, along with the hands and the pendulum. I will be a major repair since 1985.
The Houses of Parliament and Big Ben
The iconic cathedral has witnessed many significant events in Britain’s history, including the state funeral of Sir Winston Churchill and the marriage of Prince Charles and Princess Diana. A visit to St Paul’s Cathedral offers 1,200 years of history as well as the chance to climb the 237 steps to the top of the spectacular Dome. On your way up, you can witness the Whispering Gallery, where a whisper can be heard from 100 feet away, before admiring stunning views of London's skyline.
The dome contains three circular galleries - the internal Whispering Gallery, the external Stone Gallery and the external Golden Gallery. The Whispering Gallery derives its name from its unusual acoustics, which cause whispers to echo around the dome.
The church was originally a Romanesque structure during the Anglo-Saxon age, which was destroyed by a fire in 1087. The Normans reconstructed the church, which was recognized as the Old St. Paul’s Cathedral. The new structure was consecrated in 1240 and the architectural style had undergone a change from Romanesque to Gothic.
Hadrian’s Wall was built by the Romans to protect their colony Britannia from the tribes in Scotland. It stretches for 117 kilometres (73 miles) across the north of England from the Irish Sea to the North Sea. Construction started in 122 AD following a visit by Roman Emperor Hadrian, and was largely completed within six years. Today only stretches of this famous wall are still visible. There is a national path that follows the whole length of the wall from Wallsend to Bowness-on-Solway.